Retinyl palmitate is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) combined with palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid and a major component of palm oil. It is not considered to be the same ingredient as retinol, although it is converted to retinol, and then to the active component of retinoic acid once it is absorbed by the skin after being topically applied. It belongs to the family of chemical compounds known as retinoids and is one of the most important vitamins for the appearance of the skin because of its small molecular structures. These tiny molecules have the ability to penetrate the outer layers of the skin and work to repair the lower layers where collagen and elastin reside (source). Retinyl palmitate is considered a less irritating form of retinol, and a gentler ingredient on sensitive skin. However, the reason retinyl palmitate may cause less irritation is because of the lengthier process that must take place for it to be converted into retinoic acid (otherwise known as tretinoin), the active compound that creates the cell regeneration and exfoliation action within the skin.
Polyglutamic acid is also known to have the beauty effect on skin. The following are their two main features:
Arbutin is one of the many actives we sell as powders, and we also use it as an ingredient in our skin brightening cream. The mechanism of action of arbutin is through the competitive inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, although it has been suggested that it may also affect other steps in the synthesis and accumulation of melanin.
Kojic acid acts as a microphage activator. It is a safe alternative to hydroquinone for mild to moderate facial dyscromia. Kojic acid is a chelation agent produced by several species of fungi especially Aspergillus oryzae, which has the Japanese common name koji. Kojic acid is a by-product in the fermentation process of malting rice, for use in the manufacturing of sake, the Japanese rice wine. It is a mild inhibitor of the formation of pigment in plant and animal tissues, and is used in food and cosmetics to preserve or change colors of substances.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) will be transformed by skin enzymes into Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C). Use MAP as an antioxidant, to improve skin elasticity, and to decrease wrinkles through stimulation of collagen synthesis. It also reduces redness, promotes wound healing, and suppresses pigmentation.
Wash the skin thoroughly and pat dry it before application of I-GEL. Take a peanut size quantity of this gel and gently apply under the eye in a circular motion. Apply three to four times a day for better results.
I-GEL gel is available as tube of 25 gm pack.