Antioxidants are compounds that protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which cause oxidative damage to the body’s tissues. Free radicals react chemically and can damage cell membranes; free radical damage has been associated with many disorders, including age-related diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits. This molecule neutralizes free radicals or other oxidants by either accepting or donating electrons, and without being destroyed or becoming a pro-oxidant in the process. Its linear, polar-nonpolar-polar molecular layout equips it to precisely insert into the membrane and span its entire width. In this position, astaxanthin can intercept reactive molecular species within the membrane’s hydrophobic interior and along its hydrophilic boundaries. Clinically, astaxanthin has shown diverse benefits, with excellent safety and tolerability. In double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), astaxanthin lowered oxidative stress in overweight and obese subjects and in smokers. It blocked oxidative DNA damage, lowered C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammation biomarkers, and boosted immunity in the tuberculin skin test. Astaxanthin lowered triglycerides and raised HDL-cholesterol in another trial and improved blood flow in an experimental microcirculation model. It improved cognition in a small clinical trial and boosted proliferation and differentiation of cultured nerve stem cells. In several Japanese RCTs, astaxanthin improved visual acuity and eye accommodation. It improved reproductive performance in men and reflux symptoms in H. pylori patients. In cultured cells, astaxanthin protected the mitochondria against endogenous oxygen radicals, conserved their redox (antioxidant) capacity, and enhanced their energy production efficiency. Astaxanthin’s clinical success extends beyond protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, to demonstrable promise for slowing age-related functional decline.
This molecule neutralizes free radicals or other antioxidants by either accepting or donating electrons and without being destroyed or becoming a pro-oxidant in the process. Astaxanthin not only reduces free radicals in the body. But besides that, it also significantly reduces the oxidative load in the body by protecting the cells against oxidation. Itact as a quencher of singlet oxygen and other free radicals by absorbing the excited energy of singlet oxygen onto the polyene electron-rich chain. In this way, astaxanthin prevents cellular components or tissues from being damaged or further damages. The carotenoid structure remains unchanged and ready to act as a radical quencher. It is one of the most powerful lipophilic antioxidants yet discovered.Astaxanthin's has unique molecular structure that enables it to stay both in and outside the cell membrane. This gives better protection than beta-carotene and vitamin C which can only be positioned inside or outside the lipid bilayer. It has ability to protect lipids from peroxidation and its effect on avoiding DNA damage, have been clearly demonstrated.
Metabolism: Absorption and Tissue Distribution In pharmacokinetic studies, after ingestion of esterified natural astaxanthin, only unesterified astaxanthin appears in the blood. This is most likely due to breaking the ester bonds by digestive enzymes via their hydrolytic activity. Absorption into the intestinal lining cells (enterocytes) is thought to occur by passive diffusion and is facilitated in the presence of fat or other lipids. The enterocytes then incorporate the unesterified astaxanthin into chylomicrons, which transport it to the liver. The liver does not convert this molecule to vitamin A or otherwise biochemically transform it. Instead it becomes incorporated into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which then distribute it to the tissues via the circulation.
When astaxanthin is fed to human subjects, detailed pharmacokinetic data are difficult to obtain for single doses of less than 10 mg, due to limitations of assay precision. However, there is good data to indicate a single 10-mg dose can persist in the blood for 24 hours and a 100-mg dose for 76 hours. Doses as low as 1 mg can significantly increase blood levels when taken once daily for four weeks.
Astaxanthin provides cell membranes with potent protection against free radical or other oxidative attack. Experimental studies confirm that this nutrient has a large capacity to neutralize free radical or other oxidant activity in the nonpolar (“hydrophobic”) zones of phospholipid aggregates, as well as along their polar (hydrophilic) boundary zones.
The ability as high level of antioxidant activity means it can address the many age-onset conditions related to oxidative stress. Astaxanthin has been shown to actually cross the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers, means it can positively impact disorders related to brain and the central nervous system. Astanxathin is thought to be beneficial for the skin due to its lipid soluble properties and accumulation in the skin following oral administration. Study have also shown that astaxanthin had a significant protective effect on liver fibrosis by suppressing multiple profibrogenic factors. Astaxanthin effectively protects the double membrane system of mitochondria to the point of boosting their energy production efficiency.
The membrane systems of cells are particularly vulnerable to free radical or other oxidative attack, due to their content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and to their metabolic activities, which endogenously generate free radicals and other oxidants.In its position spanning the membrane, astaxanthin provides versatile antioxidant actions, including:
This product should not be used by persons who have blood-clotting problems or heart disease unless first approved by a professional.
Those who are pregnant, breast feeding or plan to become pregnant should consult their physician before use to assess potential risks
Large amounts of Beta Carotene may cause severe drowsiness, dry skin and hair, irritability, headache, insomnia, double vision or depression. Excess use of this product may also cause upset stomach, gas or vomiting.
Before use, consult your physician if you are currently taking Acitretin, Bexarotene, Etretinate, Isotretinoin, Blood thinning medicine, Tetracycline antibiotics, Tretinoin, Carob foods, Orlistat or Colestipol as this product may affect the efficacy of these medications either through structural changes or because of physiological changes in the patient.
Astaxanthin has demonstrated safety in numerous human clinical trials. In one open-label clinical study on subjects with metabolic syndrome (n=17), astaxanthin (16 mg/day, for three months) significantly raised blood bilirubin (p=0.05), potassium (p=0.05) and creatine kinase (p=0.01), although all three values remained within normal range. Also, astaxanthin significantly lowered the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP; p=0.05). Since the researchers noted this enzyme was abnormally elevated in 11 of the 17 subjects at baseline, this astaxanthin effect may have been beneficial. Animal experiments have investigated astaxanthin at levels well over 120 mg/day in human equivalents without causing apparent harm.
As a dietary supplement, astaxanthin should be taken immediately prior to meals to ensure its optimal absorption. For 2-6 weeks.
Xanthanoid is available in pack of 30 capsules in a bottle