Levosalbutamol is a single isomer beta2-agonist. Levosalbutamol relaxes the smooth muscles of all airways, from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles. Increased cyclic AMP concentrations are also associated with the inhibition of the release of mediators from mast-cells in the airways. Levosalbutamol acts as a functional antagonist that relaxes the airway irrespective of the spasmogen involved, thereby protecting against all bronchoconstrictor challenges. While it is recognized that beta2-adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors on bronchial smooth muscle, data indicate that there are beta-receptors in the human heart, 10-50% of which are beta2-adrenergic receptors.
Ambroxol is a clinically proven systemically active mucolytic agent. When administered orally onset of action occurs after about 30 minutes. The breakdown of acid mucopolysaccharide fibers makes the sputum thinner and less viscous and therefore more easily removed by coughing. Although sputum volume eventually decreases, its viscosity remains low for as long as treatment is maintained. Ambroxol increases content of surfactant in lungs, which is dealt with strengthening of synthesis of the last and secretion in alveolar pneumocytes, and also with breach of its disintegration. The medicinal product increases mucociliar transport of phlegm. It suppresses coughing insignificantly.
Chlorpheniramine maleate is a first generation antihistamine which provides prompt relief of itchy-watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, itching of the nose or throat due to respiratory allergies. The effectiveness of first-generation antihistamines in blocking sneezing in colds may be due primarily to neuropharmacological manipulation of histaminic and muscarinic receptors in the medulla. Menthol has a cooling effect on the throat. It has been suggested that benefits of menthol may be due to an effect on calcium channels of sensory nerves.
In the management of cough associated with bronchial asthma,bronchitis,COPD,RTI.
As directed by physician.
Hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients of the formulation.
Potentially serious hypokalemia may result from beta 2- agonist therapy. Levosalbutamol, like all other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of Levosalbutamol at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. Oral Levosalbutamol should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias or hypertension.
Guaiphenesin if taken in Excessive Dosage ,Emesis may result from doses larger than those required for expectorant action, but GI upset at ordinary dosage is rare
PENTAKOF-LS may cause potentially serious hypokalaemia as a result from beta 2 -agonist therapy. This effect may be potentiated by hypoxia. Particular caution is advised in severe asthma, with monitoring of serum potassium levels. Other side effects such as palpitation, fine tremors of the skeletal muscle (particularly the hand) and muscle cramps may occur. The other likely side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, burning substernal or epigastric pain and diarrhoea. In some cases nervousness, headache, dizziness, fatigue and sleeplessness may occur.
No controlled studies in women. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
PENTAKOF-LS Syrup is available in 100 ml bottle.
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