MAXICO-100 Capsule

Each capsule contains:

Co-enzyme Q-10 100 mg

DESCRIPTION

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone.

CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences.

Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders and periodontal disease.

Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized intracellularly in the human body using tyrosine as the fundamental building block. This first step requires pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (vitamin B6) as a cofactor, so adequate vitamin B6 nutriture is essential for CoQ10 biosynthesis. Certain situations can disrupt the body’s ability to produce enough CoQ10 to meet requirements. Cells and tissues that are metabolically active have the highest CoQ10 requirements (such as the heart, immune system, and gingiva) and as such are most susceptible to CoQ10 deficiency.

The primary role of CoQ10 is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. Due to its involvement in ATP synthesis, CoQ10 affects the function of all cells in the body, making it essential for the health of all tissues and organs. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant at the mitochondrial level, perhaps accounting for its benefit in neurodegenerative diseases, male infertility, and periodontal disease.

Deficiency States and Symptoms

Tissue deficiencies or subnormal serum levels of CoQ10 have been reported in a wide range of medical conditions, including

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Neuromuscular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Periodontal disease
  • Asthma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Male infertility
  • AIDS.

INDICATIONS

Cardiovascular Disease Numerous studies have investigated the benefit of CoQ10 supplementation for improving cardiovascular function via enhanced energy production, improved contractility of cardiac muscle, and its potent antioxidant activity – particularly prevention of LDL oxidation.

Research has shown CoQ10 levels are depleted in both serum and myocardial tissue samples of patients with chronic heart failure. Two important meta-analyses reported significant benefit of CoQ10 on heart failure from various causes. .Statistically significant improvements in cardiac output and stroke index were also observed in patients taking CoQ10 compared to placebo.

Other Cardiovascular Diseases Other cardiovascular conditions that may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation include angina,36,37 acute myocardial infarction,38 arrhythmias,39 protection during cardiac surgery,40,41 and mitral valve prolapse.42

Dyslipidemia and Statin Drugs Elevated cholesterol and the associated dyslipidemia are commonly treated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibiting drugs (“statins”). Because both cholesterol and CoQ10 synthesis depend on HMG-CoA reductase, both can be blocked. Depletion in CoQ10 may account for the statin-induced myopathies observed in some patients, the most serious of which is rhabdomyolysis. . Consequently, supplementing with CoQ10 is highly recommended to prevent the myopathic side effects associated with the statin drugs.

Hypertension Although the mechanism behind CoQ10’s antihypertensive effect is not conclusive, it is likely attributed to its ability to induce vasodilation via decreased peripheral resistance in the vasculature. Another hypothesis is that CoQ10’s antioxidant properties result in quenching of free radicals that cause inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and/or fibrosis of arteriole smooth muscle.

Neurological Conditions

Parkinson’s Disease Cells need energy to survive and function.They contain mitochondria, which are “batteries” that produce energy.In Parkinson's disease, there seems to be a disturbance in the function of these batteries.Coenzyme Q10 seems to affect this energy-generating mechanism in cells, although the exact mechanism remains a mystery.A recent study suggested that treatment with 1200 mg/day of Coenzyme Q10 resulted in improvements in measures of motor function over the fixed period of the study when compared to lower doses of the same compound or to a placebo compound.

Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology and activity. Researchers in the Huntington’s Study Group at Rochester University, New York, conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, 30-month trial comparing the benefit of 600 mg CoQ10 to 600 mg remacemide (an anti-excitatory drug used to treat HD) or placebo in 347 early HD patients. Although a trend toward slowed worsening of total functional capacity was reported in the CoQ10 group, results did not reach statistical significance.

Mitochondrial Disorders Five mitochondrial enzyme complexes produce the majority of cellular energy (ATP). Because CoQ10 is a cofactor for complexes I-III, a deficiency results in a progressive decrease in mitochondrial energy production and a vast array of mitochondrial disorders that can occur at any time in life. Mitochondrial myopathies, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are due to genetic mutations and can be severe in clinical presentation. Numerous case reports and small, open-label studies describe mitochondrial diseases of varying severity that have responded to CoQ10 supplementation, typically in dosages from 30-300 mg daily.

Cancer Decreased levels of CoQ10 have been found in plasma of women with breast cancer and in cancerous breast tissue, and low levels correlated with a worse prognosis. Case reports demonstrated 390 mg CoQ10 daily resulted in tumor regression and disappearance of previously diagnosed metastasis. One to three years later, depending on the case, metastases had not reappeared.

Diabetes Serum CoQ10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are often decreased and may be associated with subclinical diabetic cardiomyopathy, reversible by CoQ10 supplementation.The evidence on coenzyme Q10’s potential benefits for diabetes is a mixed bag. Two randomized controlled trials of coenzyme Q10 in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes failed to show any effect on blood glucose control or insulin requirements. However, one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that coenzyme Q10 supplements improved blood pressure and long-term blood glucose control in participants with Type 2 diabetes.

Male Infertility Mancini et al demonstrated high levels of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid that correlate positively with sperm count and motility. In subjects with varicocele, however, there appears to be no correlation between CoQ10 concentrations and sperm motility.

Research has shown CoQ10 given to individuals with idiopathic decreased sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) raises CoQ10 levels in both seminal plasma and sperm cells. In an open, uncontrolled pilot study, 22 subjects with asthenozoospermia were treated with 200 mg CoQ10 daily for six months, resulting in significant increases in CoQ10 levels in seminal plasma and sperm cells and improved sperm motility compared to baseline values.

HIV/AIDS Because CoQ10 enhances phagocytic activity of macrophages and increases granulocyte proliferation, CoQ10 supplementation may be of benefit in these patients. CoQ10’s antioxidant activity may also help prevent AIDS-related diseases such as cardiomyopathy and lipodystrophy that can be caused by oxidative stress. Blood levels of CoQ10 are lower in AIDS patients and supplementation with 200 mg/day has been shown to increase T4/T8 ratios in these individuals.

Asthma Patients with asthma demonstrate decreased plasma and whole blood CoQ10 compared to healthy subjects. It is theorized that low CoQ10 concentrations may create oxidative stress and contribute to chronic mucosal inflammation.6 In an open, randomized, crossover trial of 41 bronchial asthma patients, 120 mg CoQ10, in combination with 400 mg vitamin E and 250 mg vitamin C, was administered to asthma patients along with standard anti-asthma therapy (inhaled corticosteroids; beta agonists) for a total of 32 weeks. Patients taking corticosteroids demonstrated decreased plasma CoQ10 levels that may contribute to oxidative stress. Decreased use of corticosteroids was observed when subjects took the antioxidant combination.

Thyroid Disorders Two studies have documented decreased levels of CoQ10 in plasma and thyroid tissue of individuals with certain forms of hyperthyroidism. In Grave’s disease, excessive thyroid hormone stimulation and subsequent activation of mitochondrial function may result in subnormal CoQ10 concentrations. No clinical trials of CoQ10 supplementation in hyperthyroid patients have been conducted.

Periodontal Disease Gingival biopsies yield subnormal tissue levels of CoQ10 in patients with periodontal disease. Supplementation with CoQ10 has been shown to speed healing after periodontal surgery so significantly that, 5-7 days post-biopsy, the original biopsy site was difficult to locate.

Renal Failure A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 48 patients with renal failure and 49 controls. Approximately half the subjects in each group required dialysis and all subjects were on standard therapy (40-120 mg furosemide daily). Patients received 180 mg CoQ10 or placebo daily for four weeks. CoQ10 therapy reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values and increased creatinine clearance and urinary output in approximately 80 percent of patients. The need for dialysis treatments was also reduced.

Friederich’s Ataxia An open-label, pilot trial explored the use of 400 mg CoQ10 plus 2,100 IU vitamin E daily in 10 patients with Friederich’s ataxia for 47 months. A sustained improvement in mitochondrial energy synthesis was observed that was associated with a slowing of disease progression and improved cardiac function.

Migraine Evidence indicates impaired energy metabolism may be present in brains of migraine sufferers. Rozen et al supplemented migraine patients with 150 mg CoQ10 daily for three months and demonstrated a 50-percent reduction in number of days with migraine headache, regardless of whether patients experienced aura or not.

Pregnancy Plasma CoQ10 levels rise with each trimester of pregnancy and fetal wasting with subsequent spontaneous abortion has been correlated with low levels of CoQ10.

DOSAGE

One capsule daily or as directed by the physician.Used as a dietary supplement and not for medical use.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • CoQ10 may enhance the effectiveness of certain blood pressure medications (diltiazem,metoprolol)
  • There have been reports that coenzyme Q10 may decrease the effectiveness of blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidigrel (Plavix), leading to the need for increased doses.

STORAGE

Store in a cool and dry place. Keep all medicines away from children.

PRESENTATION

MAXICO-100 capsules are available in 10’s monocarton packing.

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